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State Steering Regulations

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Alabama
None

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Alaska
A claimant may not be required to travel unreasonably either to inspect a replacement motor vehicle, obtain a repair estimate, or have the motor vehicle repaired at a specific facility.

If a person adjusting or settling a claim elects to have repaired a claimant’s motor vehicle and chooses a specific facility for the repairs, that person shall guarantee the repairs and cause the damaged motor vehicle to be restored to its condition before the loss, at no additional cost to the claimant and cause the repairs to be completed within a reasonable time.

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Arizona
Insurers shall not require a claimant to travel unreasonably either to inspect a replacement automobile, to obtain a repair estimate or to have the automobile repaired at a specific repair shop.

If an insurer prepares an estimate of the cost of automobile repairs, such estimate shall be in an amount for which it may be reasonably expected the damage can be satisfactorily repaired. The insurer shall give a copy of the estimate to the claimant and may furnish to the claimant the names of 1 or more conveniently located repair shops.

When the insurer elects to repair and designates a specific repair shop for automobile repairs, the insurer shall cause the damaged automobile to be restored to its condition prior to the loss at no additional cost to the claimant other than as stated in the policy and within a reasonable period of time.

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Arkansas
“Unfair claims settlement practices” are committing or performing with such frequency as to indicate a general business practice, including requiring as a condition of payment of a claim that repairs must be made by a particular contractor, supplier, or repair shop.

California
Auto Body Repair Consumer Bill of Rights:

A Consumer is entitled to:

  1. Select the auto body repair shop to repair auto body damage covered by the insurance company. An insurance company may not require the repairs to be done at a specific auto body repair shop.
  2. An itemized written estimate for auto body repairs and, upon completion of repairs, a detailed invoice. The estimate and the invoice must include an itemized list of parts and labor along with the total price for the work performed. The estimate and invoice must also identify all parts as new, used, aftermarket, reconditioned, or rebuilt.
  3. Be informed about coverage for towing services. Unless the insurance company has provided an insured with the name of a specific towing company prior to the insuredÕs use of another towing company, the insurance company must pay all reasonable towing charges of the towing company used by the insured.
  4. Be informed about the extent of coverage, if any, for a replacement rental vehicle while a damaged vehicle is being repaired.
  5. Be informed of where to report suspected fraud or other complaints and concerns about auto body repairs.

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Colorado
No insurance company, domestic or foreign, or any agent or employee of such a company, shall require or permit that automobile glass repair or replacement work must be performed by a particular facility, individual, or business establishment as a condition of payment of a claim. However, an insurance company may provide that payments for such work shall be limited to a fair competitive price. No insurance company that issues, delivers, or renews such a policy shall fail to pay for the repair or replacement of automobile glass by an insured’s chosen vendor, nor shall any such insurance company engage in any act or practice of intimidation, coercion, or threat for or against any insured person or entity to use a particular vendor or location for such glass repair or replacement work.

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Connecticut
No automobile physical damage appraiser shall require that appraisals or repairs should or should not be made in a specified facility or repair shop or shops.

No insurance company doing business in this state, or agent or adjuster for such company shall require any insured to use a specific person for the provision of automobile physical damage repairs, automobile glass replacement, glass repair service or glass products unless otherwise agreed to in writing by the insured.

Delaware
No insurance company, domestic or foreign, or any agent or employee shall require that automobile glass repair or replacement work be performed by a particular facility, individual or business establishment as a condition of payment of a claim.

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Florida
None

Georgia
No insurer shall represent to a person making a claim under a motor vehicle insurance policy that the use of or the failure to use a particular repair facility or particular repair facilities may result in the nonpayment of a claim.

No insurer shall require a person making a claim under a motor vehicle insurance policy to use a particular repair facility or particular repair facilities in order to settle a claim if the person making the claim can obtain the repair work on the motor vehicle at the same cost from another source.

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Hawaii
An insurer may have a preferred repair provider program. All insurers having such a program shall:

(1) Make appropriate rate filings with the insurance commissioner to reflect the reduced premiums; and

(2) Offer a choice of no less than two preferred repair providers to the claimant, if available.

Idaho
None

Illinois
An automobile insurer authorized to do business in this State shall not unreasonably restrict access to automobile glass repair or replacement facilities by its policyholders.

An automobile insurer may enter into an agreement or agreements with automobile glass repair or replacement facilities for the purpose of containing the cost of automobile glass repair or replacement claims.

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An insurer, or a producer acting on its behalf, shall disclose to an insured, either orally or in writing, that the insured may freely choose an automobile glass repair or replacement facility

No such insurance company, producer, or adjuster may engage in any act or practice of intimidation, coercion, or threat against any insured person to use a particular facility to provide such services.

If a policyholder selects an automobile glass repair or replacement facility, the insurer shall provide payment to the facility based on a competitive price, as established by that insurer through competitive bids or market surveys to determine a fair and reasonable market price for similar services. Reasonable deviation from this market price is allowed based on the facts in each case.

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Indiana
None

Iowa
None

Kansas
None

Kentucky
An insurer, agent or adjuster is prohibited from requiring a policyholder to use a particular company or location for automobile glass replacement or glass repair services or glass products; prohibit a person selling installation of replacement glass from advertising, promising to provide, or offering any coupon, credit or rebate to pay an insurance deductible; provide that an insurer shall not be required to pay more for automobile glass replacement, or glass repair services or glass products than the lowest price available in the market area provided by a qualified, competent glass repair company; provide for penalty.

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Louisiana
It shall be an unfair method of competition and an unfair or deceptive act or practice for any insurer to establish a contract or agreement with any individual or company to manage, handle, subcontract, broker, or arrange insurance repair work for any glass repair or replacement on a motor vehicle.

It shall be an unfair method of competition and unfair or deceptive act or practice for any insurer to establish a contract or agreement with any company to manage, handle, or arrange insurance repair work or to act as an agent for the insurer in any manner, where the company establishes a price which must be satisfied by a repair shop as a condition of doing claims repair work for the insurer, and then retains a percentage of the claim paid by the insurer.

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Maine

An insurer, domestic or foreign, or its agent or employee, may not require, directly or indirectly, that appraisals or repairs to motor vehicle glass be made or not be made in a specified place of business.

A domestic or foreign insurer or its agent or employee may not contract with any person to act as its agent for purposes of managing, handling or arranging repair or replacement of motor vehicle glass when that person is compensated by payment of a portion of the difference between the list price of the product or services provided and the amount paid to the person providing repair and replacement service.

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Maryland
An adjuster, appraiser, or insurance producer or employee of an insurer may not:

  • Recommend the use of a specific repair service or source for the repair or replacement of property damage to a motor vehicle without informing the claimant or insured that the claimant or insured does not have to use the recommended repair service or source;Ê
  • Require that an appraisal or repair be made in a specific repair shop;Ê
  • Require that a claimant or insured use a specific contractor or repair shop for a repair service or repair product; or
  • Intimidate, coerce, or threaten a claimant or insured to use a specific contractor or repair shop for a repair service or repair product.

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Massachusetts
One or more registered automobile damage repair shops may contract with an insurer or insurers as a participating repair shop to repair damage to insured motor vehicles covered under a participating repair shop endorsement. An insurance company offering a participating repair shop endorsement shall provide an appropriate reduction in the premium charges for such coverages, which shall be subject to approval by the commissioner, and such company shall provide any information in support of its reduction as may be required by the commissioner. The commissioner shall have authority to promulgate such rules and regulations as he deems necessary for the implementation of this section. Such rules and regulations may include, but need not be limited to, procedures for approval of such coverages, and standards to ensure that the endorsement will be offered in a nondiscriminatory manner, that the service will be convenient to insureds, and that the repairs will be of comparable quality to those made by non-participating repair shops. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to compel an insurer to offer participating repair shop coverage.

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Michigan
This bill has been referred to the Committee on Financial Services as of March 2001:

An automobile insurance policy and an automobile insurer and its employees, agents, and adjusters shall not do either of the following:

  • Intimidate, induce, recommend, suggest, or require an insured to use a particular person, place, shop, or entity for the providing of any automobile repair service or product covered by the policy.
  • Intimidate, induce, recommend, suggest, or require an insured to use a particular brand, type, kind, age, or condition of parts for a part covered by the policy.

An automobile insurer shall fully and promptly pay for the cost of any covered automobile repair service or product less any applicable deductible at not less than the prevailing or generally found market price in the area for similarly situated automobile repair services or products. the prevailing or generally found market price in the area shall not be limited to the lowest price and shall not take into consideration any special price or service arrangement offered by the particular person, place, shop, or entity. an automobile insurer shall not fail to fully and promptly pay for the cost of any covered automobile repair service or product because of an insured’s selection of a particular person, place, shop, or entity to provide the covered automobile repair service or product.

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Minnesota
The following acts by an insurer, an adjuster, a self-insured, or a self-insurance administrator constitute unfair settlement practices:

  • Regardless of whether the loss was total or partial, requiring unreasonable travel of a claimant or insured to inspect a replacement automobile, to obtain a repair estimate, to allow an insurer to inspect a repair estimate, to allow an insurer to inspect repairs made pursuant to policy requirements, or to have the automobile repaired;
  • Requiring as a condition of payment of a claim that repairs to any damaged vehicle must be made by a particular contractor or repair shop or that parts, other than window glass, must be replaced with parts other than original equipment parts;
  • If an automobile policy provides for the adjustment or settlement of an automobile loss due to damaged window glass, failing to provide payment to the insured’s chosen vendor based on a competitive price that is fair and reasonable within the local industry at large. Where facts establish that a different rate in a specific geographic area actually served by the vendor is required by that market, that geographic area must be considered. This clause does not prohibit an insurer from recommending a vendor to the insured or from agreeing with a vendor to perform work at an agreed-upon price, provided, however, that before recommending a vendor, the insurer shall offer its insured the opportunity to choose the vendor. If the insurer recommends a vendor, the insurer must also provide the following advisory: “Minnesota law gives you the right to go to any glass vendor you choose, and prohibits me from pressuring you to choose a particular vendor.”;
  • Requiring that the repair or replacement of motor vehicle glass and related products and services be made in a particular place or shop or by a particular entity, or by otherwise limiting the ability of the insured to select the place, shop, or entity to repair or replace the motor vehicle glass and related products and services; or
  • Engaging in any act or practice of intimidation, coercion, threat, incentive, or inducement for or against an insured to use a particular company or location to provide the motor vehicle glass repair or replacement services or products. For purposes of this section, a warranty shall not be considered an inducement or incentive.

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Mississippi
No insurer may require as a condition of payment of a claim that repairs to a damaged vehicle, including glass repairs or replacements, must be made by a particular contractor or motor vehicle repair shop; provided, however, the most an insurer shall be required to pay for the repair of the vehicle or repair or replacement of the glass is the lowest amount that such vehicle or glass could be properly and fairly repaired or replaced by a contractor or repair shop within a reasonable geographical or trade area of the insured.

No insurer may write criteria of any kind by which repair shop equipment qualifying specifications may be required in order to qualify any repair shop to the insurer’s referral list. No insurer may offer or propose any form of a referral list of repair shops to policyholders or claimants.

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Missouri
None

Montana

An insurance company, including its producers and adjusters, that issues or renews a policy of insurance in this state covering, in whole or in part, a motor vehicle may not:

(a) require that a person insured under the policy use a particular automobile repair business or location; or

(b) engage in any act or practice that intimidates, coerces, or threatens an insured person or that provides an incentive or inducement for an insured person to use a particular automobile repair business or location.

(2) For the purposes of this section, an incentive or inducement does not include:

(a) providing an insured person or a customer with a list of all established automobile repair businesses or locations reasonably close to the insured person or customer that offer a warranty for the automobile repair services provided by the businesses or locations;

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(b) providing an insured person or a customer with a list of particular body shops meeting reasonable standards of quality, service, and safety when the list is requested by the insured person or customer; or

(c) referring to a warranty issued by an automobile repair business or location.

(3) The insured may use a business or location at the insured’s sole discretion, and the insurance company shall pay for the reasonable and necessary cost of the automobile body repair services for covered damages, less any deductible under the terms of the policy. This section does not require an insurer to pay more for automobile body repair services than the lowest prevailing market price, as defined in 33-18-222.

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(4) If the insured person uses an automobile repair business or location not on a list provided under subsection (2)(a) or (2)(b), the insurance company may not be held liable for any repair work performed by the automobile repair business or location that the insured person chooses to use.

(5) It is unlawful for an automobile repair business or location to charge or agree to charge an insured customer more than an uninsured customer for any automobile repair service.

(6) An insurance company that contracts with an independent adjuster may not be held liable for the independent adjuster’s failure to comply with the terms of this section.

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(7) For purposes of this section, “automobile repair business or location” does not include a business or location that exclusively provides automobile glass replacement, glass repair services, or glass products.

Nebraska
Any of the following acts or practices by an insurer, if committed in violation of section 44-1539, shall be an unfair claims settlement practice:

  • Requiring the insured or claimant to use a particular company or location for motor vehicle repair. Nothing in this subdivision shall prohibit an insurer from entering into discount agreements with companies and locations for motor vehicle repair or otherwise entering into any business arrangements or affiliations which reduce the cost of motor vehicle repair if the insured or claimant has the right to use a particular company or reasonably available location for motor vehicle repair. If the insured or claimant chooses to use a particular company or location other than the one providing the lowest estimate for like kind and quality motor vehicle repair, the insurer shall not be liable for any cost exceeding the lowest estimate. For purposes of this subdivision, motor vehicle repair shall include motor vehicle glass replacement and motor vehicle glass repair.

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Nevada
An insurer of motor vehicles shall not:\

  • Knowingly recommend to an insured, or direct an insured to, a body shop in this state which is not licensed pursuant to NRS 487.630 ; or
  • Require an insured to patronize any licensed body shop in this state in preference to another such business, except in accordance with the regulations adopted pursuant to paragraph (c) of subsection 7 of NRS 487.002 .

New Hampshire
Coercion in requiring certain automobile or glass repair:

(a) No insurance company, and no agent or adjuster for such insurance company, that issues or renews in this state any policy of insurance covering, in whole or in part, motor vehicles shall require any insured person or entity under that policy to use a particular company or location for the providing of automobile glass replacement or automobile repair services or products insured in whole or in part by that policy.

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(b) No such insurance company, agent or adjuster shall engage in any act or practice of intimidation, coercion , threat, for or against any such insured person or entity to use such a particular company or location to provide such services or products.

(c) Nothing shall prohibit any insurance company, agent or adjuster from providing to such insured person or entity the name of an automobile glass company or automobile repair company with which arrangements may have been made with respect to automobile glass or repair prices or services. If a name is provided, there must be disclosure by the insurance company, agent or adjuster to the insured person or entity that any other automobile glass company or automobile repair company or location may be used at the discretion of the insured person or entity. However, the insurer may limit payment for such work based on the fair and reasonable price in the area by repair shops or facilities providing similar services with the usual and customary guarantees as to materials and workmanship. If an independent repair shop or facility and an insurer are unable to agree on a price, then for the purposes of this section “fair and reasonable price’ shall mean the price available from a recognized, competent and conveniently located, independent repair shop or facility which is willing and able to repair the damaged automobile within a reasonable time.

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New Jersey
If an insurer has a financial arrangement with one or more auto body repair shops or other repair facilities or a network of facilities for the purpose of repairing vehicles covered under physical damage, collision, or comprehensive coverages, the insurer shall not deny a person the right to select an auto body repair shop or other repair facility of his choice for repair of a covered vehicle, provided that such autobody repair shop or other repair facility elected by the person accepts the same terms and conditions from the insurer, including, but not limited to, price, as the shop, facility, or network with which the insurer has the most generous arrangement. Prior to undertaking any repair , the auto body repair shop or other repair facility of the insured’s choice shall provide the insured with written notification, in a form to be established by the Commissioner of the Department of Banking and Insurance by regulation, that, by agreeing to have the auto body shop or other repair facility of the insured’s choice accept the same terms and conditions from the insurer as the shop, facility or network with which the insurer has the most generous arrangement, the insured may jeopardize any manufacturer or dealer warranty or lease agreement. Such notification form shall be signed by the insured prior to the undertaking of any repair.

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New Mexico
None

New York
Whenever a motor vehicle collision or comprehensive loss shall have been suffered by an insured, no insurer providing collision or comprehensive coverage therefor shall require that repairs be made to such vehicle in a particular place or shop or by a particular concern.

In processing any such claim (other than a claim solely involving window glass), the insurer shall not, unless expressly requested by the insured, recommend or suggest repairs be made to such vehicle in a particular place or shop or by a particular concern.”

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North Carolina
(c) No claims management person, agent, agency employee, limited representative, broker, or other insurer’s representative shall recommend the utilization of a particular motor vehicle repair service without clearly informing the claimant that he is under no obligation to use the recommended repair service and that he may use the service of his choice.

North Dakota

No specific laws, but according to the North Dakota Century Code, entering into any agreement to commit or by any concerted action committing, any act of boycott, coercion, or intimidation resulting in or tending to result in unreasonable restraint of, or monopoly in, the business of insurance is considered an unfair method of competition and unfair and deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance.

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Ohio
No specific rules prohibiting steering, but the Ohio Administrative Code does include the following:

When partial losses will be settled on the basis of a written estimate prepared by or for an insurer, the insurer shall supply the claimant a copy of the estimate upon which the proposed settlement is based. If the claimant subsequently claims that necessary repairs will exceed the written estimate, the insurer shall pay the difference between the written estimate and a higher estimate obtained by the claimant or promptly provide the claimant with the name of at least one repair shop that will make the repairs for the amount of the written estimate. If the insurer provides the name of only one repair shop, it shall ensure that the repairs are performed in a workmanlike manner. The insurer shall maintain documentation of all communications with the claimant pursuant to this subdivision.

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Oklahoma
Insurers shall not require a claimant to travel unreasonably either to inspect a replacement motor vehicle, obtain a repair estimate or have the motor vehicle repaired at a specific repair shop.

If an insurer prepares an estimate of the cost of automobile repairs, such estimate shall be in an amount for which it reasonably may be expected that the damage can be repaired satisfactorily. An insurer shall give a copy of an estimate to a claimant and may furnish to the claimant the names of one or more conveniently located repair shops, if requested by the claimant.

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An insurer or its representative shall not require a claimant to obtain motor vehicle repairs at a specific repair facility. An insurer or its representative shall not require a claimant to obtain motor vehicle glass repair or replacement at a specific motor vehicle glass repair or replacement facility. An insurer shall fully and promptly pay for the cost of the motor vehicle repair services or products, less any applicable deductible amount payable according to the terms of the policy. The claimant shall be furnished an itemized priced statement of repairs by the repair facility at the time of acceptance of the repaired motor vehicle. Unless a cash settlement is made, if a claimant selects a motor vehicle repair or motor vehicle glass repair or replacement facility, the insurer shall provide payment to the facility based on a competitive price, as established by that insurer through market surveys or by the insured through competitive bids at the insured’s option, to determine a fair and reasonable market price for similar services. Reasonable deviation from this market price is allowed based on the facts in each case.

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Oregon
When an insured notifies an insurer of damage to the insured’s motor vehicle the insurer shall verbally inform the insured of the provisions of ORS 746.280, prohibiting an insurer from requiring a particular person to make repairs to a motor vehicle as a condition for recovery under a motor vehicle liability insurance policy.

Pennsylvania
Insurers may not require a claimant to travel unreasonably either to inspect a replacement automobile, to obtain a repair estimate or to have the automobile repaired at specific repair shops.

If an insurer prepares an appraisal of the cost of automobile repairs, the appraisal shall be in an amount for which it may be reasonably expected the damage can be satisfactorily repaired. The insurer shall give a copy of the appraisal to the claimant and may furnish to the claimant, upon his unsolicited request, the names of two or more conveniently located repair shops.

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Rhode Island

No appraiser shall request that repairs be made in a specified auto body shop.

South Carolina
None

South Dakota
In dealing with the insured or representative of the insured, unfair or deceptive acts or practices in the business of insurance include, but are not limited to, the following:

Requiring as a condition of payment of a claim that repairs to any damaged vehicle shall be made by a particular contractor or repair shop.

Tennessee
None

Texas
Except as provided by rules duly adopted by the commissioner, under an auto insurance policy that is delivered, issued for delivery, or renewed in this state an insurer may not, directly or indirectly, limit its coverage under a policy covering damage to a motor vehicle by specifying the brand, type, kind, age, vendor, supplier, or condition of parts or products that may be used to repair the vehicle or by limiting the beneficiary of the policy from selecting a repair person or facility to repair damage to the motor vehicle covered under the policy.

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In connection with the repair of damage to a motor vehicle covered under an auto insurance policy, an insurer, an employee of an insurer, an agent of an insurer, a solicitor of insurance for an insurer, an insurance adjuster, or an entity that employs an insurance adjuster may not:

(1) solicit or accept a referral fee or gratuity in exchange for referring a beneficiary or third-party claimant to a repair person or facility to repair the damage;

(2) state or suggest, either orally or in writing, to a beneficiary that a specific repair person or facility or a repair person or facility identified on a preferred list compiled by an insurer must be used by a beneficiary in order for the damage repair or parts replacement to be covered by the policy; or

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(3) restrict a beneficiary’s or third-party claimant’s right to choose a repair person or facility by requiring the beneficiary or third-party claimant to travel an unreasonable distance to repair the damage.

Utah
Insurers are prohibited from requiring a claimant to travel an unreasonable distance to inspect a replacement automobile, to obtain a repair estimate or to have the automobile repaired at a specific repair shop.

When the insurer elects to repair and designates a specific repair shop for automobile repairs, the insurer shall cause the damaged automobile to be restored to its condition prior to the loss at no additional cost to the claimant other than as stated in the policy and within a reasonable period of time.

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Vermont

Automobile glass services. In the case of claims for damage to automobile glass under a policy of insurance covering, in whole or in part, motor vehicles:

(A) Failing to inform an insured, at the time a claim is made, of the right of the insured to choose freely any company or location for providing automobile glass services.

(B) Intimidating, coercing, threatening, or misinforming an insured for the purpose of inducing the insured to use a particular company or location to provide automobile glass services.

Virginia
Insurers shall not require a claimant to travel unreasonably either to inspect a replacement automobile, to obtain a repair estimate or to have the automobile repaired at a specific repair shop.

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When an insurer elects to repair and the automobile is in fact repaired in a repair shop selected by the insurer or designated by the insurer as a repair shop that will repair the automobile for the amount offered by the insurer, the insurer shall cause the damaged automobile to be restored to its condition prior to the loss at no additional cost to the claimant other than as stated in the policy and within a reasonable period of time.

Washington
Insurers shall not require a claimant to travel unreasonably either to inspect a replacement automobile, to obtain a repair estimate or to have the automobile repaired at a specific repair shop, or to obtain a temporary rental or loaner automobile.

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If an insurer prepares an estimate of the cost of automobile repairs, such estimate shall be itemized and shall be in an amount for which it may be reasonably ex

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